|Authors||Penniston KL, Tanumihardjo SA|
|Journal||Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Volume: 81 Issue: 4 Pages: 851-8|
|Publish Date||2005 Apr|
The effects of large doses of preformed vitamin A, such as those provided in supplementation programs for the prevention of deficiency, on total serum vitamin A have been inadequately investigated.This study characterized the time course of serum vitamin A metabolites in lactating sows after single high doses of retinyl ester.Lactating sows were fitted with jugular catheters and subsequently fed either 1.05 or 2.1 mmol retinyl ester (n = 6/group) or a corn oil vehicle (n = 3). Blood was collected at baseline and at intervals to 48 h and analyzed by gradient HPLC for retinol, retinyl esters, and metabolites.The mean (+/-SD) total serum vitamin A concentration peaked at 1 h (3.69 +/- 4.0 mumol/L) and 2 h (7.70 +/- 6.8 mumol/L) in the low- and high-dose groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Retinyl esters accounted for most of the serum vitamin A in both groups at peak time points. Mean serum retinol concentrations changed little and accounted for most of the serum vitamin A at baseline (94% and 97% for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively) but for only 22% and 14% at peak times for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively. Postdosage increases were observed for total vitamin A and retinyl esters, 4-oxoretinol, retinoyl beta-glucuronide, and retinyl beta-glucuronide but not for retinoic acid.Serum retinol concentration remains relatively static after a large dose of preformed vitamin A and therefore is not an appropriate measure of intervention efficacy. The increases in beta-glucuronide metabolites and 4-oxoretinol suggest a preventive role against a rise in retinoic acid and retinol.