|Authors||Van Savage JG, Palanca LG, Andersen RD, Rao GS, Slaughenhoupt BL|
|Journal||J. Urol. Volume: 164 Issue: 3 Pt 2 Pages: 1089-93|
|Publish Date||2000 Sep|
The American Urological Association (AUA) published clinical guidelines for the treatment of ureteral calculi in adults and note that up to 98% of stones less than 5 mm. in diameter will pass spontaneously. Ureteroscopy and shock wave lithotripsy were acceptable treatment choices for stones less than 10 mm. in diameter in the distal ureter. We reviewed our management of distal ureteral stones in children to see if the AUA Guidelines for adults would apply.A total of 14 males and 19 females with a mean age of 12 years (range 0.5 to 17) required hospitalization in the last 6 years for distal ureteral obstruction due to stones. Excretory urography or computerized tomography was performed in all cases, and mean stone size was 4 mm. (range 1 to 15). When stones did not pass spontaneously most patients were treated with ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy.There were 12 (36%) with a mean age of 11 years and a mean stone size of 2 mm. (range 1 to 3) who passed stones spontaneously with intravenous hydration and narcotics. No child passed a stone 4 mm. or greater spontaneously in this series. Of 21 patients (64%) with a mean age of 12 years and a mean stone size of 5 mm. (range 1 to 15) 2 were treated with ureteral stents, 17 with ureteroscopic lithotripsy and 2 with shock wave lithotripsy. All patients were stone-free at the end of the procedures. The stone composition was predominantly calcium oxalate. Mean followup was 2 years.Similar to the AUA guidelines in adults, most stones less than 3 mm. in diameter in the distal ureter of children will pass spontaneously. Stones 4 mm or greater in the distal ureter are likely to require endosurgical treatment. Ureteroscopy and shock wave lithrotripsy have a high success rate for stones between 4 and 15 mm. in the distal ureter. Needle ureteroscope and laser lithotripsy have allowed more stones to be treated safely and effectively in smaller children.