|Authors||McLean DT, Strand DW, Ricke WA|
|Journal||Differentiation Volume: 97 Pages: 23-32|
|Publish Date||2017 Sep - Oct|
Despite the advancement of transgenic and gene knockout animal models in the prostate cancer research, there is still a need for utilizing xenograft models. Xenografts can be grown in multiple sites/organs within immunocompromised animals such as mice and rats. Although prostate xenografts have been derived from many species, human cells and tissues are the most commonly used due to their potential clinical significance. Xenograft models that progress from one state or stage to another are commonly used to address important scientific questions including malignant transformation, metastatic spread, and castration resistance. Utilization of xenografts are commonly being used to assess the biology and genetics of prostate cancer, as well as, for therapeutic benefit. In addition to models for the study of prostate cancer, xenografts are also utilized as a tool in precision medicine where patient derived xenografts (PDX) can be grown in multiple animals and assessed for therapeutic efficacy. The popularity of such xenograft models and PDXs have led to availability of these resources through public and commercial institutions. In this review, we describe both traditional and emerging models of prostate cancer and their potential uses. Further development of current models and introduction of new models will likely provide new insights and better understanding of prostatic carcinogenesis and progression.