|Authors||Richards KA, Abel EJ|
|Journal||Curr Opin Urol Volume: 26 Issue: 5 Pages: 432-8|
|Publish Date||2016 Sep|
Approximately one in three patients with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at the time of surgery will subsequently develop local or metastatic recurrence. The purpose of this review is to examine the current rationale for surveillance, describe sites of RCC metastasis, evaluate the existing guidelines for postsurgical follow-up studies, and analyze the risk stratification systems following RCC surgery.Although 75% of recurrences will be identified during the first 5 years following surgery, late recurrences are not uncommon. The risk of recurrence can be predicted from the tumor stage, grade, and other pathologic features. Advanced risk stratification will likely be possible in the future with increased use of molecular classification and serum biomarkers. Patient comorbidities, age, and individual recurrence risk should also be considered when designing individualized surveillance protocols.Follow-up after surgery for RCC should focus on imaging of the chest and abdomen to detect common sites of recurrence. Patients should be stratified for risk, and surveillance imaging should be more frequent and intensive in healthy patients with higher risk. Future research is needed to define an optimal individualized surveillance strategy that balances the potential benefits of early cancer detection with the risks and cost of surveillance.