|Authors||Lubner MG, Stabo N, Abel EJ, Del Rio AM, Pickhardt PJ|
|Journal||AJR Am J Roentgenol Volume: 207 Issue: 1 Pages: 96-105|
|Publish Date||2016 Jul|
The purpose of the present study is to determine whether CT texture features of newly diagnosed primary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) correlate with pathologic features and oncologic outcomes.CT texture analysis was performed on large (> 7 cm; mean size, 9.9 cm) untreated RCCs in 157 patients (52 women and 105 men; mean age, 60.3 years). Measures of tumor heterogeneity, including entropy, kurtosis, skewness, mean, mean of positive pixels, and SD of pixel distribution histogram were derived from multiphasic CT using various filter settings: unfiltered (spatial scaling factor, 0), fine (spatial scaling factor, 2), medium (spatial scaling factor, 3-4), or coarse (spatial scaling factor, 5-6). Texture values were correlated with histologic subtype, nuclear grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome.When a coarse filter setting (spatial scaling factor, 6) was used, entropy on portal venous phase CT images was positively associated with clear cell histologic findings (odds ratio [OR], 134; 95% CI, 16-1110; p < 0.001) and was negatively associated with non-clear cell subtype findings (papillary spatial scale factor, 6; OR, 0.016; 95% CI, 0.002-0.132; p < 0.001). ROC curve analysis for entropy (on portal venous phase images obtained with a spatial scaling factor of 6) revealed an AUC of 0.943 (95% CI, 0.892-0.993) for clear cell histologic findings, with similar values noted for non-clear cell histologic findings. The mean of positive pixels and the SD of the pixel distribution histogram were statistically significantly associated with histologic cell type in a similar fashion. Entropy, the SD of the pixel distribution histogram, and the mean of positive pixels were associated with nuclear grade, most prominently when fine or medium texture filters were used (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant association of texture features noted on unenhanced CT, including the SD of the pixel distribution histogram, the mean of positive pixels, and entropy, with the time to disease recurrence and death due to disease (e.g., for entropy noted on unenhanced CT images obtained with a spatial scaling factor of 6, the hazard ratio was 3.49 [95% CI, 1.55-7.84]; p = 0.002).CT texture features (in particular, entropy, the mean of positive pixels, and the SD of the pixel distribution histogram) are associated with tumor histologic findings, nuclear grade, and outcome measures. The contrast phase does seem to affect heterogeneity measures.