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Authors Karam JA, Devine CE, Fellman BM, Urbauer DL, Abel EJ, Allaf ME, Bex A, Lane BR, Thompson RH, Wood CG
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Journal BJU Int. Volume: 117 Issue: 4 Pages: 629-35
Publish Date 2016 Apr
PubMed ID 26033220
PMC ID 4666818

To evaluate how many patients could have undergone partial nephrectomy (PN) rather than radical nephrectomy (RN) before and after neoadjuvant axitinib therapy, as assessed by five independent urological oncologists, and to study the variability of inter-observer agreement.Pre- and post-systemic treatment computed tomography scans from 22 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma in a phase II neoadjuvant axitinib trial were reviewed by five independent urological oncologists. R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score and κ statistics were calculated.The median R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score changed from 11 before treatment to 10 after treatment (P = 0.002). Five tumours with moderate complexity before axitinib treatment remained moderate complexity after treatment. Of 17 tumours with high complexity before axitinib treatment, three became moderate complexity after treatment. The overall κ statistic was 0.611. Moderate-complexity κ was 0.611 vs a high-complexity κ of 0.428. Before axitinib treatment the κ was 0.550 vs 0.609 after treatment. After treatment with axitinib, all five reviewers agreed that only five patients required RN (instead of eight before treatment) and that 10 patients could now undergo PN (instead of three before treatment). The odds of PN feasibility were 22.8-times higher after treatment with axitinib.There is considerable variability in inter-observer agreement on the feasibility of PN in patients treated with neoadjuvant targeted therapy. Although more patients were candidates for PN after neoadjuvant axitinib therapy, it remains difficult to identify these patients a priori.

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