|Authors||Sarkar S, Jülicher KP, Burger MS, Della Valle V, Larsen CJ, Yeager TR, Grossman TB, Nickells RW, Protzel C, Jarrard DF, Reznikoff CA|
|Journal||Cancer Res. Volume: 60 Issue: 14 Pages: 3862-71|
|Publish Date||2000 Jul 15|
Inactivation of both the pRb (pRb-cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-p16) and p53 (p53-p21(WAF1)-p14(ARF)) pathways is thought to be essential for immortalization in vitro and malignant transformation in vivo. We identified different combinations of pRb and p53 pathway alterations in 12 invasive transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) and addressed the functional significance of the different combinations observed. Results showed four combinations of alterations including -pRb/-p53 (ie., pRb inactivated in the pRb pathway and p53 inactivated in the p53 pathway; four TCCs), -p16/-p53 (four TCCs), -p16/-p21(WAF1) (one TCC), and -p16/ -p14(ARF) (two TCCs). These groups include two new combinations (ie., -p16/-p53 and -p16/-p21(WAF1)) not reported previously for TCCs. An alteration in the key components of the p53 pathway was not detected in one invasive TCC that had inactivated p16. Note that all four TCCs with inactivated pRb had mutant p53; thus, the combinations of -pRb/ -p21(WAF1) and -pRb/-p14(ARF) were not observed. Only two of eight TCCs with altered p16 had concomitant p14(ARF) loss, demonstrating that simultaneous inactivation of these two 9p21INK4a tumor suppressor genes is not obligatory. To determine the biological phenotypes of TCCs with different combinations of pRb and p53 pathway alterations, their downstream responses to gamma radiation were studied in vitro. As expected, none of eight TCCs with mutant p53 responded to gamma radiation by elevation of p53, p21(WAF1), or mdm2 or by cell cycle arrest. Only two of four TCCs with wild-type p53 and wild-type pRb (the combination of -p16/-p14(ARF)) showed normal downstream responses to gamma radiation and underwent cell cycle arrest. Two TCCs with wild-type pRb and wild-type p53 (the combination of -pl6/-p21(WAF1) and one TCC with -p16) failed to show cell cycle arrest in response to radiation. This was attributed to the absence of p21(WAF1) in one TCC. In summary, these data support a model of invasive bladder cancer pathogenesis in which both the pRb and p53 pathways are usually inactivated and the biology of the tumor is impacted by the mechanism of their inactivations.