|Authors||Patel SR, Nakada SY|
|Journal||J. Endourol. Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 153-7|
|Publish Date||2015 Feb|
Serendipity, innovative physicians, evolving techniques for renal access, and improvements in equipment and radiology led to the evolution of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).We searched urology texts and the literature for sources pertaining to the history and development of PCNL.In 1941, Rupel and Brown performed the first nephroscopy when a rigid cystoscope was passed into the kidney following open surgery. Willard Goodwin, in 1955, while trying to perform a renal arteriogram, placed a needle into the collecting system of a hydronephrotic kidney and performed the first antegrade nephrostogram. He left a tube to drain the kidney, thereby placing the first nephrostomy tube. By 1976, Fernström and Johansson were the first to describe a technique for extracting renal calculi through a percutaneous nephrostomy under radiological control. In 1978, Arthur Smith, would describe the first antegrade stent placement when he introduced a Gibbons stent through a percutaneous nephrostomy in a patient with a reimplanted ureter. Dr. Smith would coin the term “endourology” to describe closed, controlled manipulation of the genitourinary tract. His collaboration with Kurt Amplatz, an interventional radiologist and medical inventor, would lead to numerous innovations that would further advance PCNL. In the 1980s the process of renal access and tract dilation was improved upon and the use of a rigid cystoscope was replaced by offset nephroscopes with a large straight working channel. Radiographic innovations, including improvements in fluoroscopy would further aid in renal access. The development of various lithotripsy devices and the introduction of the holmium laser improved the efficiency of stone fragmentation and clearance. The increased clinical experience and utilization of PCNL would lead to the characterization of stone-free rates and complications for the procedure.Serendipity, innovations in renal access, optics, radiology, and improvements in lithotripsy all contributed to the modern day PCNL.